moogoonghwa | earth
The War on TerrorCentral Asia and the Middle East
- Just another imperialist?An essay on a US pronouncement leading up to the war against the Taliban and the eviction of Osama bin Laden - 21 September 2001 (pdf format).
- Waiting for Godot?In defense of Palestine and the failure of the US to intervene during the second Intafada - 6 December 2001 (pdf format).
- Shared principles and individual bravery.One does not instill new principles, while abandoning well-established, old ones - 6 April 2002 (pdf format).
- Shades of gray and the wonders of belief.Terrorism is horrific, but so are many other things - 28 April 2002 (pdf format).
- The self-righteous and the just.The peace that Israel seeks is one of domination and oppression - 31 May 2002 (pdf format).
- The Frankenstein monster.There is something very awry about the US-Israeli friendship - 27 July 2002 (pdf format).
- Unaccomplished fait accompliIt is easy to make war when you have the upper hand. The challenge is to make peace - 11 September 2002 (pdf format).
- Anti-Semitic?In order to erase decades of misleading Israeli propaganda it is useful to dwell on the opposition. This is a story of a national government run amok - 16 October 2002 (pdf format).
- There are few innocent people in a democracyMany people lament the loss of innocent life in the Israeli-Palestinian conflct. How many question the meaning of innocence - 8 December 2002 (pdf format)?
- An unfortunate gambitWhat to make of the UNSC stand-off regarding Iraq. How President Bush got us into this mess. What US allies could be doing to help us get out of it, but are no. - 9 March 2003 (pdf format - 56 KB).
- Three drives to a par five!Making good on a failed gambit: why one should not be worried about the fate of the UN and a long post-war occupation of Iraq - 6 April 2003 (pdf format - 12 KB).
- Good Bush stay, bad Bush goThere is more to democracy than stability and order: an answer to the question about how long the US should remain in Iraq - 24 April 2003 (pdf format - 16 KB).
- Enemies of peace, or defenders of Palestine - rivers on a roadmap without bridgesIsreal and the United States must accept the Hamas and other Palestinian paramilitary groups who are party to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict as negotiating partners - 28 June 2003 (pdf format - 20KB).
- Bad Bush go - That the US stay!The Bush Administration is no longer worthy. It is time for a new, more credible, less bellicose, president that can live within its means and provide long term vision and world leadership - 8 August 2003 (pdf format -16KB).
- It is not what you say, rather what you do not say that counts - An exercise in reverse logicPresident Bush's speech at the opening session of the 58th UN General Assembly. The US-Iraeli quagmire -28 September 2003 (pdf format - 80KB).
- Mene, Mene, Tekel: Sharon's Decision WallTime is running out in Palestine and the democratic world must act quickly. If reasonable Arabs and Jews do not unite, Sharon and Bush will have their way, and we will all have to pay for it well into the future - 28 December 2003 (pdf format - 32KB).
A very useful link in this regard can be found on the stopthewall.org website.
- A failed diplomat, and Israel's failing foreign policy - A conversation in three parts.For the past 40 years democratic governments around the world have given Israel a free-ride. It is time that we the people put an end to it. This is a critique on Ambassador Mazel's recent act of vandalism at the Museum of National Antiquities in Stockholm - 28 January 2004 (pdf format with photograph - 164KB).
- Five, four, three, two, one, and still counting - This is not an essay about al QaedaWhat many have perceived as a victory for al Qaeda is in the final analysis a victory for democracy. Our hats should be off to José Luis Rodrigues Zapatero and Spain's national electorate - 8 April 2004 (pdf format - 28KB).
- The fuel that stokes the fire - USAmerica's enemies within.The United States has missed two important opportunities to establish a new world order since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Both of them took place under a Bush administation. Unfortunately Senator Kerry can promise little better - 8 June 2004 (pdf format - 36KB).
- More democratic folly? Suggested issues for the upcoming presidential debates.Foreign policy is often decided in a fine mist of detail in which domestic voters can easily become lost. This essay attempts to lay some of the more important issues squarely on the table - 30 September 2004 (pdf format - 92KB).
- New perspective for a new administration - In search of a comprehensive settlement in the Middle East.The United States government must win back the trust of the Palestinian people, the Arab world, and its principal European allies - 1 November 2004 (pdf format - 66KB)
- Mostly Red - From and to the heart of the United States of AmericaIn the Muslim world fundamentalism is an attempt to preserve the past. In the United States it is an attempt to revive what many in the West have forgotten. These two viewpoints are not so very different - 21 January 2005 (pdf format - 88KB)A critique on the themes of the 2005 Presidential election. A polished revision of the above document - 29 May 2010 (pdf format - 176 KB).
- More Can Be Done - When hypocrisy is written all over your face.Failing to discriminate between global terror and the legitimate defense of the Palestinian people is a road block to peace in the Middle East. Recently 54 US Congressmen and -women wrote a letter to President Obama urging him to provide immediate relief to the Palestinian people. Much more needs and can be done. Israel must be made to stand down and enter into dialogue with Hamas and others that it decries as terrorists - 28 January 2010 (pdf format - 172KB).Organizing for America asked its supporters to submit questions to President Obama that address issues to which the President was unable to speak in his 2010 State of the Union address. In the hope that these questions reach the President's desk (certainly they were dutifully submitted on the OFA website), then I am look forward to the President's response on 4 February 2010 (pdf format - 98KB).
- Tough Love.Israel must be made to stand down.In the absence of a need for friendship friendship is unlikely to occur and peace will never take place. The United States must create that need for Israel before any negotiation between the Israelis and the Palestinians can succeed. - 29 March 2010 (pdf format - 175KB).
- The Two Sides of EvilOur perceived and real enemies. A response to Senators Feinstein and Lugar.It is true. Our way of life is being threatened. However, it is less threatened by Muslim terrorists, than by the multi-national corporations who control our governments. We no longer live in a democracy for the many; rather, we live in a democracy for the few in the name of the many - 22 June 2010 (pdf format - 188KB)
- ISIS, Israel, and USAdmit our error, withdraw in honor, and help thereby to put an end to the horrific bloodshed.The United States of America have no business in the Middle East that is not directly related to mutually agreed trade. Our military imposition is strongly resented, and our armed forces are over-expanded. We are no longer fighting on behalf of the free world; we are fighting on behalf of global imperialism. The effort is doomed as have all imperial efforts on the part of others been doomed before us. We cannot absolve ourselves from our crime, but we can certainly stop committing more. - 6 December 2015 (pdf format - 6.7 MB).
Trashing the Globe's Electronic Freeways
- Google's free trash delivery serviceEARTH prides itself in being frank for the sake of most. Others pride themselves in hurting others without detection. Have you ever heard of Ghostscript - 31 May 2003 (pdf format - 16 KB)?
Importation of Foreign Workers
- When in Rome. Adaption and assimilation - Whose burden?Employers who do not bear the costs of the social problems they create are likely to create more. International graduate teaching assistants (ITAs) at major US universities are a form of imported labor. 13 April 2005 (pdf format - 64KB)
my region (north america)
moogoonghwa | earth
Ramifications of Imperial Reach
- Cambly's Gollum TechnologyMy abrupt departure. Still another case of being unfit for subservience.class='description'>There should be no doubt that the English language has become the lingua franca of the world. As such, those who need it should have the opportunity to obtain it, but no one should be forced to learn it against his will. This, of course, is not the attitude of many a national government. As a result, an enormous excess demand for the language has been artificially created, and there are simply not a sufficient supply of competent teachers to go around. The result is that many students are clamoring for competence and finding it on the internet. Unfortunately, they are offered lured into something far more sinister. -- 22 June 2016 (pdf format - 558 KB).
- Letter to President Larry P. Arnn, Hillsdale CollegeEncouragement to Hillsdale College to change the way in which they host and manage the discussion boards of their online courses.Hillsdale College is one of the few places on the internet that promotes constitutional government as conceived by our nation's founding fathers. Like any private non-profit institution the College must raise money from donors with their own political agenda. As a result, Hillsdale College is subject to certain critical political biases that must be kept in perspective. The discussion forums that accompany each lecture series offered by the school are the best place to achieve this goal. -- 10 March 2019 (pdf format - 154 KB).
The Coming of the 2nd Republic
and the Global RevolutionCaution: In order to open these articles you must have Adobe Reader 7.0 or higher installed on your computer. It costs nothing but a few minutes of your time, and it will open many doors to a wealth of new information.Just follow the simple instructions.
- My 2010 Christmas WishAn End to America's Political Disease - BipolarismWe are still voting with our feet. America is caught in a vacuous ideological tug-of-war that is drowning out serious political debate and placing the wrong people into power. In order to recapture control of our government we need a new political party. There is no other way short of a revolution - 24 December 2010 (pdf format - 155 KB).
- The Coming of the 2nd RepublicCongressional Purge and Constitutional ReformWe may continue to support a corrupt system, or we may seize the moment, make history, and set a new course unencumbered with the accumulated baggage of a system that knows no end, that is not its own defeat. - 26 February 2011 (pdf format - 345 KB).
- Building a Movement - The Major Hurdles10 April 2011 (pdf format - 153 KB).
- The Three DonkeysHow Not to Succeed in the Game of Donkeys and ElephantsThis is a fable of political folly. When the enemy within looms large compromise is essential, even if it is only temporary. - 5 September 2011 (pdf format - 152 KB).
- Money Creation and the RevolutionAlong the Path to Real ChangeOur central governments and private banks work together in a corrupt symbiotic relationship based on a commercially flawed contractual agreement called fractional reserve banking. This essay explains how this relationship brings about economic boom and busts, undermines the economic stability of the working class, and contributes to the growing income gap.It is an essay designed for those with limited training in economics and finance and distinguishes clearly between money and real wealthand how banks use this difference to exploit our real economy - originally posted on 20 October 2011 and further revised on 24 November 2011) (pdf format - 327KB).
- Central Banking: The Enemy of Sound MoneyA Transition from Unsound to Sound MoneyDiseases desperate grown, by desperate appliances are relieved, or, not at all. King Claudius, Shakespeare's Hamlet 1603.As the value of the US dollar continues to deteriorate, monetary economists around the world are exploring reasonable alternatives to the current method of supplying money to our markets. (pdf format - 996KB).
Post Election 2010Caution: In order to open these articles you must have Adobe Reader 7.0 or higher installed on your computer. It costs nothing but a few minutes of your time, and it will open many doors to a wealth of new information.Just follow the simple instructions.
- Divided Nation or Divided Congress?Democracy, Health Care Reform, and Its AftermathYes, there is something more important than the state of our health care system; it is the state of our democratic institutions -- the political fabric that holds our nation together. Unfortunately, those who would have us believe that the crisis is about differences in deeply rooted American values would have us vote with our feet. - 28 March 2010 (pdf format - 143 KB).
- July 4thA day I once celebrated with much greater enthusiasm.It is one thing to engage in war to defend our way of life; it is quite another to impose our way of life on others. The 11 September 2001 attack on New York City and Washington, D.C. was surely an attack on our way of life. Our subsequent invasion of Afghanistan was an unnecessary response; the Taliban were never our enemy. Saddam Hussein's entry into Kuwait in 1990 was not a threat to our existence, and we drove him out without the approval of the United Nations. Not only was our entry into Iraq in 2003 unnecessary, but it was strongly discouraged by our allies. We are now back in Afghanistan even stronger than before. It is difficult to view these wars as anything but dangerous acts of opportunism.The pain of war is not easily forgotten, and history will be the ultimate judge of our actions. (pdf format - 132 KB).
Post Election 2009
- Citizen's Briefing Book - An ExtractA compilation of letters submitted to President-elect Obama via the Obama Transition Team’s Citizen's Briefing Book in anticipation of the President's 2009 Inaugural Address.This is an effort to muster support for an immediate end to Israeli brutality in the Middle East and to promote a more proactive, less militaristic, pragmatic role on the part of the United States in bringing peace to the Middle East.Each letter is dated and titled, makes a statement, and finishes with a brief question, observation, or comment to President-elect Obama - 18 January 2009 (pdf format - 236 KB).
- A Dollar a Day - For a Healthy Public DomainBy providing for the uninsured we also provide for a healthier, happier public domain from which we all stand to benefit. 11 September 2009 (pdf format - 110 KB).
- There Are No Innocent People in a Democracy -- Only Victims.An Appeal for Additional Support of the A&E 911 Truth MovementWe cannot simply sit back, comment, and criticize our government and the national press. Our government is our responsibility, and it is our obligation to ensure that it behaves properly beyond our borders. 21 October 2009 (pdf format) - 160 KB)
Post Election 2008
- The Big Spend - When the spigot opens, beware of floodingThe pitfalls of emergency federal spending as a means to rescue the economy from pending recession - (revised) 25 November 2008 (pdf format - 146 KB)
- Mark My Words! - A few practical suggestions for actionObama's first international test has already come, but not from an enemy to the United States, rather from its supposed staunchest ally -- the state of Israel. 31 December 2008 (pdf format - 359KB).
2008 US Presidential Election
- Before the Debate BeginsTalking past one another at the Democratic and Republican National Conventions - 7 September 2008 (pdf format - 124 KB)
- Say No Evil, Hear No Evil, Know No BlameAn essay about what is not being adequately discussed during the 2008 presidential debates and about special interests that command foreign policy to the detriment of the greater American domestic good - 7 October 2008 (pdf format - 68 KB).
- Wealth Creation or Redistribution - A Hockey Mom's Defense of Joe the PlumberWhen transferring wealth from the rich to the poor can mean a larger national economic pie - 17 October 2008 (pdf format - 64 KB).
- Hope or Fear? - It Is Time to DecideAmerica has come a long way, but it has much further to go. An essay containing photographs, charts, and links explaining why there is a need for comprehensive change in Washington, D.C. - 1 November 2008 (pdf format - 232 KB).
my region (east asia)
moogoonghwa | earth
East Asian Trends
- Aspiring to be global, or perspiring to be healthy: An essay on form and function in East Asia.Are there no better ways to spend local taxpayers' money? Governmental departments and privately incorporated institutions that deceive foreigners and themselves, also cheat local taxpayers - 8 November 2003 (pdf document - 12 KB).
The English Language in East Asia
- English: Bridge or Barrier. The political economy of the English language in East Asia
- English Language ReformWhat a national government might wish to consider with regard to English language reform. An open letter to the new South Korean government - 8 February 2003 (pdf format - 52 KB).
- Throwing good money after badThere is good reason to believe that the English language is not the beginning and end of a successful tourist economy. More on English language reform, but this time in Hong Kong - 9 March 2003 (pdf format - 56 KB).
- The Swimmer: A failed communicationRacism is a world-wide phenomeno that expresses itself differently according to the society, country, and even region in which one is present - 28 November 2003 (pdf format - 56 KB).
- Hong Kong's Window Dressers: What sound reasoning would not dictate.Some people care about Hong Kong; others appear to have different political and personal agendas - 31 December 2003 (pdf format - 40KB)
- Presentation Proposal for the 16th World Conference of Applied Languages, Beijing 2011.The AILA is finally coming to East Asia -- an opportunity not to be missed for those interested in bringing reform to the world's English language industry - 7 February 2010 (pdf format - 59KB)
- Presentation Proposal for the 31st Annual Thailand TESOL International Conference, Chiang Mai, 2011.In preparation for the 16th World Conference of Applied Languages in Beijing I have requested permission to present my paper in Chiang Mai - 15 September 2011 (pdf format - 73KB)
- Paying the Bully: What can the US hope to achieve in Northeast Asia?A few reasons why negotiating with North Korea is a bad idea - 8 January 2003 (pdf format).
topmy region (hong kong)
BusinessWan Chai, Hong Kong
- LETTER (31 July 2002) - Business Registration Office, Inland Revenue Department, Hong Kong S. A. R. (pdf format - requires CKJ fonts | English only)A letter requesting the legal basis for the department's refusal to allow residentially based e-businesses from claiming their post office boxes as their official places of business. Included is a brief examination of the economic inefficiency in which this government policy results.
EnvironmentSunshine City, Ma On Shan, Hong Kong
Shatin Wai, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong
- LETTER (04 June 2002) - Environmental Protection Department, Hong Kong, S. A. R. (pdf format - requires CKJ fonts | English only)A letter explaining the abominable living conditions that have resulted from poor coordination between private developers and local government.
- Renovation Termites - Hong Kong, A Renovators' ParadiseAn essay on the misery that Hong Kongers must endure in the absence of proper legislation to control renovation work in Hong Kong's residential high-rise apartment complexes - (pdf format 100 KB)
Information AccessOffice of the Privacy Commissioner
Wan Chai, Hong Kong
- Privacy for the PrivilegedHong Kong's privacy law is a double edged sword that protects Hong Kong citizens from abuse on the one hand, and the Hong Kong government from accountability on the other. (pdf format 20 KB - English)
ImmigrationWan Chai, Hong Kong
- ReboundAn ever so slightly positive, non-fiction short story about Hong Kong immigration policy and the obstruction of justice. Submitted to the South China Morning Post 2002 Short Story Contest. (31 August 2002) pdf format - English)
JurisprudenceEastern District Magistracy
- The Swimmer - Part II: Trial without jury - Hong Kong's jurisprudenceHow admistrative pool negligence, an uncaring athletic community, and Hong Kong's jurisprudence can turn a dedicated recreational athlete into a common criminal - 8 March 2004 (pdf document - 24KB)
Public Facilities UseMa On Shan Park, Ma On Shan, Hong Kong
- LETTER (14 November 2001) - Senior Amenities AssistantA letter requesting better park management with regard to the use and abuse of an outdoor adult training course.
- LETTER (25 November 2001) - Senior Amenities AssistantA follow-up letter to my first letter and initial conversation regarding the use and abuse of park facilities.
- LETTER (05 April 2002) - Senior Amenities Assistant (pdf format - requires CKJ fonts | English only).A letter of thank you for the park's cooperation in helping to make the park's outdoor adult training course a useable public facility.
topmy locality (Seattle, Washington, USA)
- LETTER (10 October 2020) to Christopher Gergen, Campaign Manager/General Consultant for Loren Culp's bid for the Washington State's 2020 Governorship.It is clear that the US Government has lost control of its budget, and that the endless flow of counterfeit currency will eventually bankrupt our nation. The US Government is already bankrupt. This dilemma can be resolved at the State level by invoking Article I, Section 10, §1 of the US Constitution. That the State of Washington lead the way! (pdf format - 40 KB)
for the Homeless
- LETTER (26 March 2007) - Ms. Chris Gregoire, Governor of the State of Washington.Downtown Emergency Service Center (3rd Avenue Shelter). The protection of personal belongings in Seattle shelters for the homeless.(pdf format - 64 KB)
- Seattle City Hall: Eighty Matts for the HomelessA response to a KUOW article by Kate Walters on the Seattle City Council's decision to open the lobby of Seattle's public domain headquarters to the homeless. This article addresses the intended solution - 20 July 2018. (pdf format - 64KB).
- LETTER (14 April 2007) - Steve Vela, Aquatics Coordinator, Queen Anne Pool.Springboard Diving - The state of the sport in the city of Seattle. (pdf format - 84KB)
- LETTER (18 June 2007) - Medgar Edgars Pool, Michele Finnegan, Interim Operations Director, Seattle City Parks and RecreationSpringboard Diving - The state of the sport and a city responsible for the state of the sport in the state. Letter of resignation. (pdf format - 72 KB).
- LETTER (30 April 2007) - Federal Protective Service, Homeland Security Office, State of Washington (pdf format - 64KB)Breakdown in communication between government and citizen in the face of xenophobic attitudes among FPS employees.
- LETTER (22 June 2007) - Patrick Zitny, Area Commander, Federal Protective Service, Homeland Security Office, State of Washington (pdf format - 273KB)Commander Zitny offered a verbal apology for any "inconveience" suffered by a US citizen because of his department's handling of entry into a federal building.
- Does an Inspector of the Homeland Security Office have discretionary power over what documentation is permissible for entry into a Federal office building?
- Does the Homeland Security Office have an obligation to investigate matters of individual importance beyond the superficial examination of required documentation?
Liberty in Seattle
- Achilles' Heel or Samson's HaircutA response to E.J. Dionne, Junior's June 2013 criticism of the Libertarian approach to the criminiality of the state - 26 July 2015(pdf format - 64KB)
- The Modern Anglo-American Robin Hood: A Time Past, or Still an Uncharted FutureA further response to the aforementioned KUOW article by Kate Walters on the Seattle City Council's decision to open the lobby of Seattle's public domain headquarters to the homeless. This article addresses the extortion and outrage that the intended solution provokes. - 20 July 2018 (pdf format - 64KB)
- A Letter to Father Ryan, St. James CathedralIt was noticed among my homeless friends and me that the failure of the Catholic Church to discriminate between good and bad social behavior at the St. James Cathedral where we receive our late afternoon meal five days a week was contributing to the overall tension among the meal recipients. Whereupon I took it upon myself to convey this message to Father Ryan, the Cathedral's head, and to offer a solution that I thought the good Father could appreciate.My homeless friends and I are still waiting for clear evidence of impending change (Sunday, 15 December 2019). - Thanksgiving Day, 28 November 2019. (pdf format - 53KB)
- A Letter to Sergeant Eric Sano, Seattle Police DepartmentBeing myself the victim of criminal assault I am disturbed by the increase in asocial behavior in my neighborhood and fear that it will lead to more behavior of the criminal sort. It is my belief that most of this behavior could be avoided, if those who were engaging it could be confronted about their behavior in the moment that they engage in it. Most concerned citizens, however, are fearful of such direct confrontation for a variety of reasons.Were an electronic reporting system made available to local communities and the participation of the members of these communities encouraged I believe that the problem of local crime could be largely mitigated. This letter proposes just such a mechanism -- Sunday, 2 October 2022 (pdf format - 59KB) NEW!
topmy locality (Berkeley, California)
- Open Letter to the ASUC Senate and Its PresidentThe President's veto was unreasonable and ill-advised. It should be overridden by the Student Senate.When the friendship between the governments of two democratic states stands in the way of what is just and right under international law, then it is time for the people of both nations to act within the law of their respective nations to provide guidance to their respective, wayward governments. - 8 April 2010 (pdf format - 168 KB).
topmy locality (Daejeon, Republic of Korea)
Korean Immigration Service
- A Tale of Three Cities - Korean Immigration Law and the Korean Immigration Service (pdf format - 233 KB)I was invited by the Korean government to improve Korea's English language interface with the non-Korean world. There is truly a need, and an important place to begin might be with those who invited me -- the Korean Immigration Service.
topmy locality (Daejeon, Republic of Korea)
31st Annual Thailand TESOL
International Conference, Chiang Mai
- Is a Little English Better Than None - A Keynote Presentation - 22 January 2011 (YouTube Video - 30 minutes)This slide-show introduces the economic notion of opportunity cost as it applies to the acquisition of English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) in grade school. Although applied directly to Hong Kong the scenario outlined in this presentation is applicable, in part, wherever English is taught as part of a universal second language requirement mandated by a national government.The assumptions, discussion, and conclusions were adapted for a Thai audience. The conclusion is that the few are profiting at the expense of the many, and the many are most -- not all -- school children.Although some slides require a full 30 seconds to absorb, others require just a few. So, please be patient when the going appears slow, because at some point you will likely think that it is much too fast.The beginning of the video shows the part of the presentation that was actually delivered. The second part of the video includes those parts that were cut before the presentation was given to avoid time overrun. The division, altough obvious, is not made explicit.
topmy locality (Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)
College of Science and Technology
Al Hamra, Jeddah
- Career and You - It's Up to You! - May 2011 (YouTube video - 26 minutes)A talk presented at the College of Science and Technology College, Al Hamra, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to a group of graduating seniors and honored guests. It is about how to find your career in life.
English Language Institute
King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah
- Building a Program in the Probable Absence of Real Incentives. 20 June 2011 - (YouTube video - 6:25 minutes | abstract pdf format 46KB)This is a slide-show presented to my colleagues and the staff of the English Language Institute, King Abdul-Aziz University. It illustrates well the problem of creating a foundation-year English language program based on desire and appearance rather than full information about the needs of advanced-level undergraduates.Offers a solutions along the path toward full information. Preliminary research proposal and request for data (pdf document - 640 KB)
rabic Language Institute
King Abul-Aziz Univeristy, Jeddah
- Language Is the Key to Culture - A Graduation Speech for Beginning Arabic Studies - 11 December 2011 (pdf format - 72 KB)A speech presented in celebration of the graduation of Arabic language students at the Arabic Language Institute. This speech was delivered in English before Dr. Osama S. Tayyeb, President, King Abdul-Aziz University and Prof Zaini Ujang, Chancellor, University of Technology Malaysia (UTM), other distinguished guests, university staff, and fellow classmates.